Monday, July 27, 2015

Dallas Heritage Village

In preparing for my recent trip to Dallas I had pulled up a list of dog friendly places.  Almost the first place that jumped off the list at me was the Dallas Heritage Village.  I knew it was perfect for Bentley and me when I began exploring their website and found that this was more than a modern day attraction. It is a living history village of buildings that have been relocated from all over North Texas and assembled here so they can share what life was like 100 years ago with us today.
In 1876 James J. Eakins gave the City of Dallas 10 acres of his land in lieu of paying taxes.  This property became the city's first park and was known simply as City Park.  In 1881 the city acquired 8 more acres from the Browder family; this tract included Browder Springs which had served the city as its first public water supply source.

The Cedars, an elegant residential neighborhood comprised of the fashionable homes of business and mercantile leaders, grew up around the park during the 1880's and 1890's. There are still remnants of this neighborhood surrounding the park today.  This area's close proximity to the railroads made it the ideal place for the construction of factories; workforce housing for the factory workers also appeared in this area.  There was a zoo located here and weekly concerts were held in the bandstand. The park was truly an active part of the community. 

This home is an administrative office of the park.  There were several homes on this side street, each with identical steps leading up the small hill from the street.

I'm always intrigued by steps like these and wonder about the home that they led to once upon a time
After World War II residents began moving to the suburbs.  When Interstate 30 was completed The Cedars was cut off from downtown and fell into decline.  But a group of women looking for a place to relocate a plantation home that was scheduled to be wrecked offered new life to the park. Mary Aldredge and the Founders Garden Club had to store the disassembled house in a warehouse before convincing the city of Dallas to let them put it here in City Park in 1966.  When re-assembled Millermore opened in 1969 it would be the first of 21 buildings that would follow to the park. In 2005 the park was no longer referred to as Old City Park when it was re-named the Dallas Heritage Village.

Millermore was built between 1855 and 1862 by William Brown Miller on Bonnie View Road in Dallas. The house was built facing exactly north, using the North Star as a compass in construction. It was designed to catch the prevailing winds for cross ventilation.  Slave labor was one of the factors that enabled Mr. Miller to carry out his plan to build a grand house.

Stone was quarried from nearby and hauled to the house site where pieces for the foundation, chimney and hearths were cut.  Cedars on the property were cut and pulled to the site by oxen and then hewn into beams.  The construction took seven years due to Mrs. Miller's death in 1856 and the 8 weeks it took for a load of lumber milled in Jefferson, Texas to arrive in Dallas via a commercial freight wagon.

When completed the Greek Revival details evident in the house were only a symmetrical fa├žade, a small portico with slender columns and a wide hallway flanked by square rooms.  A cistern on the back porch was designed to catch rain water which was then used by the ladies to wash their hair and clothes since it was softer than the well water! The balcony and 2-story porch were added in 1912.

In future posts I will feature a few of the other buildings.  Please visit their website, Dallas Heritage Village. And, yes, they were dog friendly.  I couldn't take Bentley inside any of the buildings, but I still appreciated the fact that I could bring him in to enjoy the grounds.

Saturday, June 20, 2015

Other projects of Henry T Phelps in Jourdanton, Texas

The last Doorway Into the Past post covered the Atascosa County Courthouse built in 1912 and designed in the Mission Revival style by Henry T Phelps.  He also designed two other structures for Jourdanton that are worthy of note.  Interestingly his firm, Phelps & Dewees & Simmons, designed many, many structures in San Antonio and the surrounding area.  Today that firm is still in business under the name of Garza/Bomberger and Associates and continues to produce remarkable designs.

The jail was completed in 1915 and used as such until 1982 when a new, modern detention facility was opened.  The first floor of the jail served as office space and living quarters for the Sheriff's family from 1919 until 1959.  The second floor had jail cells as well as a gallows room that, thankfully, was never used.  Additional cells were located on the third floor. 

The Texas Historical Commission marker notes that construction cost $20,000.  It describes the building as "having an eclectic blend of architectural elements" with crenelated towers and hood moldings on the windows.
An addition to the building was completed in 1974 with matching brick and similar elements.  Today the building is used as county offices.  The day I visited there was no one around the building and, honestly, it gave me the creeps!  I did not linger any longer than it took to make pictures.  It was a formidable structure and I cannot imagine how any Sherriff would want his family to live with prisoners on the upper floors!
Phelps also is credited with designing a high school gymnasium that was constructed with help from the WPA  It is no longer extant; I'm working to find the exact location of the gym and possibly a picture.  At some time the WPA marker and cornerstone of the gym was preserved in a brick enclosure in front of the Jourdanton ISD school complex.
Finding this was an unexpected thrill as I had no idea that it existed.  I was just trying to find the Texas Historical Commission marker and was overjoyed to find that some dear souls in the community had taken such care to preserve these important pieces of the old gym.

Saturday, May 23, 2015

Atascosa County Courthouse

Many years ago, in what now seems like another life, I frequently passed by this courthouse and thought it to be a unique building if not unusual.  And, it is unusual because the Atascosa County Courthouse is the only Mission Revival style courthouse to survive in Texas, per the Texas Historical commission website.  (See the Alamo motif on each tower?)
Built in 1912 it underwent restorations inside and out after a large corbel (bracket) fell from one of the towers.  Pictures of the courthouse during renovation and interior afterwards are seen at Fisher Heck's website. Renovations included masonry and tile roof repairs and intensive interior restorations and upgrades to modernize the buildings electrical and mechanical systems.  The restored courthouse was dedicated on June 14, 2003.

The courthouse sits in the middle of a circle driveway with each side being identical.  Only one side is slightly altered as that is where the entrance to the elevator was created.  I could only imagine an elderly or disabled person struggling up the stairs both inside and out!
Texas politics has always been a hot topic and Atascosa County was no exception.  Atascosa was created out of Bexar County (San Antonio) in 1858.  The first courthouse was a log cabin on land donated by Jose Antonio Navarro. The county seat would move to Pleasanton in 1856 where 3 successive courthouses would be built.  In a special election held in 1910 voters choose to move the courthouse to Jourdanton.  As to be expected there was politics, politics, politics.

Henry T Phelps was hired to design the courthouse; he designed 17 Texas courthouses with 15 of those still in use today.   I think this was his only Mission Revival style courthouse. Other projects in Jourdanton include the Atascosa County Jail (1915) and a now extant high school gymnasium (1938) built with assistance from the WPA.  He designed many buildings and homes in San Antonio, including Alamo Stadium and the Nix Professional Building (hospital).

Thursday, April 23, 2015

Lee County Courthouse

On a recent visit to Giddings, Texas I was pleased to see that the doorway into the Lee County Courthouse was boarded up!  The building has not been condemned and is not to be torn down, it is undergoing a restoration to correct various problems that have appeared since the previous restorations!  This is the kind of boarded up building I like to see!

The Lee County, Texas Courthouse was completed in 1899 as a replacement for the courthouse that had burned two years earlier. The first courthouse had been completed in 1878 in the Second Empire style with a mansard roof and is described as having been an elegant building.  Prior to its construction there had been a heated debate and election to determine that Giddings would be the county seat; after the first courthouse burned there was another unsuccessful push to move the courthouse.

James Riely Gordon was chosen as the architect and after submitting a bid of $32,270 to complete the building Sonnefield, Emmins, and Abright of San Antonio was chosen as contractors.  Gordon was a prominent 19th century architect who designed many buildings in Texas, but is best known for his courthouse designs.  Most of the courthouses are extant and continue to serve as the seat of county government. Interestingly, he had no formal training as an architect!
Gordon used his version of what was referred to as a Richardsonian Romanesque style as it reflects the style attributed to architect Henry H. Richardson. The historical marker states that the courthouse was designed along the same lines as the New York State Capitol and several buildings at Harvard University.  Its simplicity and lack of ornamentation distinguishes it from earlier courthouses designed by Gordon.  The Lee County Courthouse is almost identical with the Comal County Courthouse designed a year earlier by Gordon.

The courthouse was built on the large lot one block south of the business district of Giddings where the original courthouse was located.  The contractor paid convicts $1 a day to remove the burnt bricks from the burned out courthouse.   Today the courthouse sits serenely in the middle of the park like block; its visibility in this tranquil setting seems to add to its grace and beauty.

I was unable to make out anything on the original cornerstone; details are more evident in a digital photograph.  Construction began in 1898 and the building was completed and received by the Board of Commissioners in June 1899. 

The building has had only minor alterations, thus retaining its original details. Even so, as with most old buildings the courthouse has faced serious problems that threatened its integrity.  As indicated on the cornerstone there was a restoration in 1982; however, basement flooding was threatening the building's structure.  A grant from the Texas Historic Courthouse Preservation program in 2004 funded below grade water proofing, repaired exterior masonry, restored the windows, and replaced mechanical and electrical systems.  In 2010 an emergency grant had addressed stabilizing the foundation and another emergency grant in 2014 provided funds to repair masonry, doors and interior finishes that had been affected by the structural movement of the foundation.

The three story building rests on a raised limestone base.  Limestone also is used in the arches, foliated capitals and for the wide band that forms the first and third floor window lintels. The second floor windows have only a single stone lintel.  Blue granite used in the steps and polished columns provides a contrast to the red brick and white limestone.
Limestone is such a common building material in Texas that I have honestly never really given it any thought.  Not until I looked at these pictures and realized that it is an architectural element in its own way. I never realized how much detail the limestone blocks have and how that adds to the design of the building.  The workers that cut and laid these pieces were true craftsmen. 

And, yes I'm anxious to go back to see the courthouse when the boards are removed.  I'm watching the Texas Historical Commission website to see if they will have a re-dedication that's at a time when I can attend.   

Friday, March 20, 2015

The Battle of the Alamo hasn't ended

Before I move onto the next post, I feel that I would be remiss if I did not continue just a bit with the last post.  While it focused on what is known today as Alamo Hall I thought it would be appropriate to briefly mention the actual Alamo and Alamo grounds and the current battle going on there today. 

Alamo chapel doors
The Alamo is always associated with the battle to the death that took place in March 1936, but its history began long before that and has continued right up to the current day.  Originally founded as Mission San Antonio de Valero in 1718 near the San Pedro Springs it would move a year later and then again in 1722 to its present day site. 
A concrete version of the acequia that brought water to the Mission from the San Antonio River
The history of the Alamo and the surrounding grounds is much too complex to even briefly summarize here and there are plenty of good sources to consult regarding the many events that these walls have witnessed.  The Battle of the Alamo was to the death, but in subsequent years there have been many locally earth shaking battles over these walls and the surrounding grounds. Preservation has been at the heart of each battle, but now it is the question of who will manage the Alamo complex in the future that is stirring the waters. 

East entrance of Alamo Gift Shop
The State of Texas took control from the Daughters of the Republic of Texas who had saved it from destruction in 1903. Now the Texas General Land Office is conducting a national search for a new management company to run the Alamo.  Personal opinion:  that strikes absolute terror in my heart! What concerns me is if an outside management company will truly understand what they are managing.  The chapel has serious structural issues that must be addressed and the debate is raging about the entire area known as Alamo Plaza and its preservation, just to name a few of the issues a management company will immediately face.  The property is not just something that a management company can manage.

If you would like to read more I'm attaching a link to an article in the San Antonio Express News published on Sunday, March 16, 2015 and an editorial published on Thursday, March 18, 2015 if you want to read further. 

A new era is dawning at the Alamo
Yes to an Alamo amendment

Monday, February 16, 2015

DRT Meeting Hall

The Daughters of the Republic of Texas used this building as their meeting hall from the time it was constructed in 1939 until 2012. The Daughters had lost their custodianship of the Alamo property following allegations of mismanagement and were asked to remove their property from the grounds of the Alamo.
Today it is known as Alamo Hall and is the only facility for public and private events within the walls of the Alamo grounds. This patio is located on the right side of the building as seen in the first photo and is a lovely setting for an event.  There was quite an uproar when it was decided that alcohol could be served in the Alamo Hall!

Work had been done on the Alamo grounds in 1934 under the Texas Relief Commission which had been established in 1933 by Governor M.A. (Ma) Ferguson; funding for the project was through the use of Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) funds.  A marker confirming this work is on the wall facing Crocket Street that connects the DRT meeting hall and their Library. I was puzzled about it because I knew for sure the building had been built in 1939.  My mystery was solved when I asked the local historian who writes a column in the San Antonio Express News about it.  The marker was relocated there from another lower wall that was present in the 1930's.  Even though it is out of place on the wall of the DRT meeting hall I was pleased that someone had the forethought to preserve it.
Lewis Fisher writes in Saving San Antonio The Precarious Preservation of a Heritage that the City had agreed to donate Fire Station No. 2 to the DRT in the fall of 1936 as part of a plan to preserve the Alamo and surrounding grounds.  The old fire station was to be torn down as part of the federally funded work being done on the Alamo grounds.  It should be noted that much controversy had surrounded the proposed plans for the Alamo and it is much too detailed to discuss here.  A member of the Centennial Advisory Committee, Ernest Altgelt, suggested to the DRT that they use the building for "some useful service" as it was a good strong building. The new auditorium would be constructed from the foundation and remains of the old fire station.

An article in the March 2, 1939 San Antonio Express News states that remodeling of the old central fire station on the grounds of the Alamo was underway and was expected to last for 3 months. The meeting hall would seat 300 people.  The plan was to reconstruct the abandoned fire station into an assembly hall for “San Antonio patriotic organizations”.  The structure was to cost $15,811 and this article notes that it would be one of the last projects in the area around the Alamo. It also identifies the work as being done through the WPA.

A picture and article in the San Antonio Light published sometime in 1939 states that work had been completed on the DRT meeting hall.

Monday, January 5, 2015

Aleswana Grounds

The previous post featured the lovely home originally known as Aleswana located in Comfort, Texas. I feel it would be remiss if I move on without mentioning the amazing grounds of the former summer home of the Steves family.
Even on a misty fall day the views of the Texas Hill Country are phenomenal!
In 1911 Albert Steves built the first of seven dams on the Guadalupe River.  These dams generated electricity to pump water up to the house. 
In 1922 a pond and storage tank were constructed close to the house.  Water was pumped into the tank and then used to irrigate the entire 22 acres. (The pond is contained in the rock wall behind the tree in this photograph)
The banks of the Guadalupe River were (and still are!) a great place to picnic, relax, and swim on a summer afternoon.  In the quiet I could hear the laughter of the girls and the delightful shrieks of the boys diving into the cold water! I wondered how many romances blossomed along these banks!
This gazebo was designed and built by Dionicio Rodriguez, a Mexican born artist who specialized in Faux Bois (false wood) sculptures constructed using a special formula of concrete.  His works are in various states and many are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Looks like real wood, doesn't it? I'm not sure when this was built, but it has withstood the elements very well. Apparently the formula to mix the special concrete was known only to Mr. Rodriguez.
A swimming pool is between the house and the gazebo.  The original pool is said to have been hand dug by the resident caretaker over the period of one winter!